Honors Biology Final Exams: Semester 2 – 2014

I have had an absolutely blast working with each and every one of you. And it has been my absolute pleasure to get to know you. But, all good things must come to an end, and your end to this class is only a few clicks away.

Before you begin, please close all links and tabs. Then, open the link below and complete the Google Form as your answer sheet. please do not write on the paper version of t he test (use scratch paper provided is necessary). You must complete each page before you can move on to the next, but you can go back and check answers before you submit. DO NOT, under any circumstances hit the “back” button at the top of the page. This will reset your test and cause you to have to re-do the whole thing!

Good luck!

Honors Biology: Semester 2 Final Exam

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ECA Reminders

Biology students, here are a couple of reminders before we head into tomorrow’s ECA test.

1. Charge your iPad tonight!

Kind of a big deal since you will be using it for an hour straight tomorrow morning on a standardized test. And don’t assume there will be an available outlet in the room you are testing in. That being said…

2. Bring A Charger

…just in case.

3. Close all Apps and Tabs

Tonight go through and save any process or bookmark any websites that you need to keep. Tomorrow your iPad will need to be a clean slate.

4. Room Assignments

  • 1st period ⇒ 4309 (our regular room)
  • 3rd period ⇒ 4336 (history hallway)
  • 7th period ⇒ 4340 (history hallway)
  • 9th period ⇒ 4338 (history hallway)

5. Vocab Vocab Vocab

When writing your short answer questions, try to use vocab whenever possible. Instead of saying “Aa”, write heterozygous dominant

6. Take your time

You have 55 minutes. Think through an answer before you start typing, or eliminate options you know can’t be right before you choose the best possible answer.

7. Good Luck

Solutions for Solutions

Haha, I get it. Seriously though, we’re going to take some baby steps through the world of solutions. As a refresher, Solutions are a homogenous mixture (meaning it is evenly dispersed) of Solute and Solvent. The solvent is always the substance of larger amount when the two are mixed…

For example, the Earth’s atmosphere is made up of several different types of gases. It is only about 20% oxygen but 76.5% Nitrogen! That being said, we would say that Nitrogen is the Solvent and all other gases are the solutes.

There are different types of mixtures as well.

  • Collids – are also Homogeneous, but the molecules of a collide do not settle or separate (like Milk)
  • Suspensions – are heterogeneous meaning the parts of the mixture are not evenly dispersed (think Italian Dressing)

When it comes to solutions though, its a complete and even mixture. But not everything mixes so well. In chemistry, we say that “Like dissolves Like“. What that means is that things that have a smiler molecular make-up can mix together, like salt and water. we call these substances “miscible” because they are each polar molecules so they can mix. But Oil, which is non-polar and there for not like water, does not mix with water. We call substances that do not mix “immiscible“. But fear not oil fans, oil can mix with other non-polar substances because they are alike!


So what does mix with water? Well good solutions of water include Electrolytes. Electrolytes are compounds that can be broken down, or separated into ions. Salt, NaCl, is an electrolyte because it is split into Na+ and Cl when placed in water. Non-electrolytes can also mix with water, but they do not separate. So solid (s) sugar molecules, since it cannot be split into ions, will stay as one molecule but will change form to become aqueous (aq). Why is that important? Well we calculate the number of particles created when a molecule is placed in solution with the V’Hoff factor (i).  For example, Sodium Hydroxide, which is an electrolyte, dissociates (that means molecule made with ionic bonds is broken into ions) into Na+ and OH. The V’Hoff factor would be i=2 because it splits into one of each of the ions. If it was MgCl2 , then i=3 because there would be one Mg+2 and two Cl. For all Non-electrolytes, i=1 because the molecule does not separate. Like when sugar is placed in water… the sugar does not break apart, it stays together as C6H12O6. If it’s a covalenetly bonded molecule splitting into ions, it is called ionization.


What if we wanted to make Kool-aid and want to know exactly how much to place in 100g of water before it starts to just settle at the bottom. Then we need a Solubility curveEach line represents a different compound. Where the line does shows saturation, or the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in 100g of water before it starts to settles at the bottom. For Example, at 50°C we can dissolve 30g of K2Cr2O7 in 100g of H20. But at 90°C we can dissolve 69g of K2Cr2O7. We can also use this graph to determine if a solution is ‘supersaturated‘ (more than saturated – above the line) or ‘unsaturated‘ (less than saturated – below the line).


For every solution there are two mole measurements we can determine. These measurements can help us determine how much solute or solvent is in a solution. These measurements are:

For these calculations, you can convert between moles and grams by either multiplying by molar mass (mol x MM = g) or by dividing by molar mass (g/MM = mol). If you need, click this link for a molar mass calculator. Luck There is so much more to study with solutions(colligative properties, ppm, & % solution), this is just the tip of the iceberg.

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration, although the inputs and outputs seem easy, the process is very convoluted and complicated. Lucky for you, we’re going to simplify it to a point that is appropriate for a High School Biology student.

Keep in mind that Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration are reciprocal reactions. What that means is that the requirements of Cellular Respiration are the products of Photosynthesis! Likewise, the products of Cellular Respiration are the requirements of Photosynthesis! Its a 3 Billion year long symbiotic relationship! (And you thought your month-long high school girlfriend was a long-term commitment!)

Here is the jist of what Aerobic (meaning with Oxygen present) Respiration entails…

 

Aerobic Respiartion

Glycolysis

  • Uses 2 ATP to break down Glucose
  • NADH & 4ATP (net gain +2 ATP) are created.
  • The NADH goes to the Krebs Cycle.

Krebs Cycle

  • Uses Oxygen and Acetyl-CoA
  • Makes 2 ATP, NADH, & FADH2 (both of which are electron carriers)
  • Carbon Dioxide is given off as a byproduct.
  • The NADH goes on to the ETC

Electron Transport Chain

  • Uses Oxygen and NADH
  • Make 32 ATP and Water (used as an electron acceptor)